R Venkataramanan

R Venkataramanan

R Venkat's Blog

R Venkat's Blog
"To be an Inspiring Teacher,one should be a Disciplined Student throughout Life" - Venkataramanan Ramasethu



Sunday, July 26, 2009

What Do Babies See? By Penny Glass, PhD

The visual system is our most complex sensory system, but functionally is the least mature system at birth. Together, the sensory systems form an integrated hierarchy, and are influenced by the nature of the environment.

At birth, infants are still auditory dominant, rather than visually dominant; that is, they are first "listeners," rather than "lookers." The predominance of high levels of visual stimulation in early infancy, such as through black/white/red patterns or objects, may artificially shift an infant from the expected auditory dominance to visual dominance.

Normal visual maturation is the shift from responding to simple brightness or high contrast edges of forms toward organization of detail into a pattern, and understanding the meaning of an object or picture. If visually captured by the overwhelming brightness or colors of toys, the infant is less likely to recognize what an object is or how it fits into a scheme of things.

Infants born pre-term have more difficulty integrating and interpreting visual information even when their acuity is normal. They may be biologically more vulnerable, more easily overwhelmed by excess visual stimulation and more readily distracted by irrelevant information.

What to do? Normally, in the early months, there should be nothing more enchanting than the human face - and even more so in the context of social interaction; visually intense toys and baby videos have no role in normal development.

Simple baby toys encourage eye-hand coordination through visual and manual exploration of a single object, promote exploration of events such as cause and effect, and means to an end, and enhance exploration of spatial relationships between one object and another. A baby takes his/her experience with objects and visually seeks a person with whom to share the wonder, and who will comment in return.

What a Baby Sees in the First Year

Newborn - One Month

A newborn...

•has an inborn preference for what is familiar;

•pays attention briefly to the human face;

•responds to movement;

•has acuity of about 20/400, but can detect a black line that is only 1/16 of an inch wide on a white board;

•possesses color vision, with the exception of blue.

Two Months

A two-month-old baby...

•visually "locks" onto a human face, particularly when the face is accompanied by a voice;

•watches people at a distance;

•is able to alternate his/her gaze between two people, objects or patterns, and show simple visual preference.

Four - Six Months

At this age, a baby...

•is fascinated with faces of other babies and his/her own, as seen in a mirror;

•recognizes a person on sight and smiles selectively;

•shifts from his/her earlier preference for what is familiar to a preference for novelty (except as related to people).

At this time, there is evidence of more cognitive processing and visual recognition memory (i.e., recognizing relevant pattern information amidst change without being overtly distracted by detail). Also, a four- to sixth-month-old baby is visually guided in reaching/grasping; and visually inspects and examines a toy held in different orientations/positions, and looks for it when it falls from view.

Six - 12 Months

At this age, objects continue to exist for a baby even when they are no longer in view; and he/she begins to recognize a novel picture as a representation of a familiar object.

In addition, social referencing is experienced at this age. Between six and 12 months, a baby...

•can look in the direction that your eyes are gazing;

•may modify his/her approach to, or withdrawal from, a novel situation by the positive (or negative) expression on a parent's face;

•begins to direct his/her gaze toward familiar people or objects, in response to common words when a parent labels what the baby is looking at;

•looks at an object and then at the parent, to indicate wanting access to the object and/or a comment from the parent;

•shows a toy to a parent in a manner of sharing wonder.

Penny Glass, PhD, is Associate Professor of Pediatrics, George Washington University Medical School, and Director of the Child Development Program, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC.

Farsighted Children Often Missed in Screenings

Your child can read road signs half a mile away and has passed every eye test he's ever taken, but he still may need glasses.

Farsighted children (those who can see far away but not up close - also known as hyperopia) are not routinely detected in a regular eye test, and they rarely complain. But their eyesight could lead to reading difficulties, behavior problems or even being misdiagnosed with learning disabilities.

"A farsighted child has to exert more attention to focus," says Russell Crosier, an optometrist in Arlington, Texas. "It's work for those kids to sit and read through a chapter book. Reading is not fun, it's work."

Nearsighted children (who can see up close but not far away) are regularly diagnosed in school eye screenings or discovered by teachers when they can't see the chalkboard.

The breakdown between nearsighted and farsighted kids is thought to be about 50/50, but farsighted youngsters are harder to spot.

"They aren't going to fail a school screening," Crosier says. "Kids are not big complainers. Parents have to be observant. "

So how can a parent identify a kid with an eye problem?

•Eye rubbing. Kids who are getting enough sleep should not be rubbing their eyes or head, Crosier says. Watch them play a hand-held video game. Do they hold it close to their face or far away? Do they rub their eyes or head afterward?
•An eye that turns in or out.
•Using a finger to follow along with the words when they read.
•Lower grades than usual.

If your child is very small, make sure that the doctor is comfortable seeing young patients.

"Parents should be prepared for a child to be dilated," Crosier says, which means they will have three to eight hours of blurry vision and sensitivity to sunlight. Many offices will provide plastic sunglasses to be worn for those hours, or parents can bring sunglasses to the visit.

So don't plan to go swimming, do homework or go to a baseball game afterward.

Parents should explain to a young child before his eyes are dilated that his vision will be blurred because it can be scary.

A Developmental Approach to Evaluating Children and Supporting Families of Children With Impaired Vision - By Norman B. Medow, MD, FACS

Case study: Tommy is a four-month-old whose parents are concerned about his vision. They have two other children with normal vision, but they also had experienced some visual problems in the first year of life. Upon examination, Tommy is found to have poor visual responses, although his pupils, retina and optic nerves all appear normal. How does a pediatric ophthalmologist evaluate such a child and discuss his concerns with the child's family?

Evaluating a Child's Vision

As children reach various visual developmental milestones, some develop more quickly while others take more time. For this reason, visual and physical development is charted on a curve - with most children in the center and some falling to the left or right.

Vision and its manifestations - such as following objects, recognizing faces, smiling and grasping - all are parts of this developmental picture. If there are no other abnormalities and the condition simply is a time-wise delay, we refer to it as delayed visual maturation. Some children show delay, even markedly, but ultimately develop normal visual pathways and have normal vision. Other children, who appear not to have ocular abnormalities but exhibit delayed visual maturation, might show some visual abnormalities ultimately.

Discussing a Vision Condition With Parents

The pediatric ophthalmologist balances clinical impressions with experience when discussing an analysis with parents and making a recommendation. If some abnormality is found during an ocular examination - such as wandering gaze, to and fro oscillations of the eyes (nystagmus), optic nerve irregularities, retinal disturbances, pupillary abnormalities or abnormalities referred to the visual system by neurological developmental irregularities - the pediatric ophthalmologist may wish to explore these findings with further testing or consultation. The doctor also may ask a pediatric neurologist to see the child or request an imaging study of the eye and/or brain.

In addition, the doctor may consider having an electroretinogram or a visual evoked response (VEP) test performed. Each of these studies requires, in general, some degree of sedation. The electroretinogram and the VEP may not be reliable until six to seven months of life, so oftentimes these tests are not utilized in very young infants.

Tommy, for example, is a child who is otherwise normal but shows some delay in his visual responses. As his two siblings had similar delays and nothing else abnormal can be found, it is reasonable to speak with his parents about the probability of delayed visual maturation, and the expectation that normal milestones will be reached over the next few months. I refer to this form of treatment as "judicious neglect" (i.e., frequent observation, monitoring and examination). If normal milestones do not occur, the pediatric ophthalmologist would then consider further testing to evaluate the persistence of what was thought to be normal developmental delay.

On the other hand, if an infant does show visual pathway abnormalities, the doctor, likely in consultation with a pediatric neurologist, tries to clarify the cause of this defect. Once clarified, the pediatric ophthalmologist discusses the problem with the parents, what its long-term effect is and what can be done to optimize their child's development.

The pediatric ophthalmologist stands in a unique position to:

•provide the family with information about the child's visual condition and clarify it in appropriate terms;

•give parents the educational and social resources to help the child develop to his/her fullest extent;

•evaluate the child periodically, so that any change in visual status is detected early and intervention can be provided.

It's important to realize that children cannot be isolated from their surroundings. They need care through the developmental years, as well as nurturing and adult contact. Children with impaired vision require much more input in all stages of development, and it's essential that the doctors who care for them understand the importance of multidisciplinary awareness and input.

Norman B. Medow, MD, FACS, is Director of Pediatric Ophthalmology, Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital, New York, NY.

Source: Lighthouse International's EnVision newsletter (Fall 2002 issue)

The Bose factor

Some renowned scientists who share a surname and a forgotten few

Jagadish Chandra Bose (1858-1937): Physicist and physiologist who pioneered research on radio waves, produced devices for generating electromagnetic waves and demonstrated that plant tissues can generate electrical responses

Satyendra Nath Bose (1894-1974): Physicist who established theoretical physics in India and whose ideas Albert Einstein built upon to propose the concept of the Bose-Einstein Condensate


Girindrasekhar Bose (1887-1953):
A psychoanalyst in Calcutta who founded the Indian Psychoanalytic Society in 1921 and was in extended correspondence with Sigmund Freud

Kartik Chandra Bose:
A physician in Calcutta who worked with another physician, Gananath Sen, to produce the first modern evidence for successful therapy of violent mental disorders with the extracts of the plant Rauwolfia serpentina in 1931. Later, western scientists followed up this work to gain new insights into brain chemistry and develop anti-psychotic drugs

Calcutta misses, West catches

India neglected research on the treatment of violent mental disorders by two Calcutta physicians in 1931 and missed an opportunity to lay a foundation for modern biological psychiatry, psychiatrists have said.

The work by physicians Kartik Chandra Bose and G. Sen was virtually ignored by India’s research community. But US and European scientists advanced their work during the 1950s, gained fresh insights into the chemistry of the human brain and developed new drugs for mental disorders, two psychiatrists from the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, have said.

The NIMHANS doctors, Sanjeev Jain and Pratima Murthy, have scrutinised medical journals and archives of modern psychiatry to document how circumstances and a twist of fate prevented the lead from Bose and Sen from being pursued in India. Their account of this episode in India’s science history appears today in the journal Current Science, published by the Indian Academy of Sciences.

“We were ahead in the 1930s, but had lost out by the 1950s,” said Jain, a professor of psychiatry. “Such neglect leads to usurpation — then crocodile tears are shed over (someone) stealing our knowledge,” Jain told The Telegraph.

Bose and Sen had published a landmark paper in 1931 where they described the first successful treatment of psychosis and violent symptoms with the extracts of a plant called Rauwolfia serpentina, known for long in traditional Indian medicine.

They showed how a pinch of a powder extracted from this plant taken twice daily reduced violent symptoms within a week. “Their paper provided the first modern empirical evidence for this therapy,” Jain said.

After the paper was published, an Indian chemist, Salimuzzaman Siddiqui, initiated a systematic chemical investigation of the plant and isolated several compounds. But after Partition, Pakistan’s Prime Minister Liaqat Ali Khan requested Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru to send Siddiqui — who had by then also developed the indelible ink used even today in Indian elections — to Pakistan.

No one pursued further research on the plant, although the crude powder continued to be sold across India as a product of traditional medicine. This practice kindled a fresh era of research in the US and Europe in the 1950s.

A psychiatrist named Nathan Kline in New York showed in 1954 that a compound, called reserpine, obtained from the plant could be used to treat schizophrenia. Other studies led to new insights into the action of this product in the brain.

A Swedish scientist, Arvid Carlsson, advanced the work further and showed in 1957 how drugs could be designed to counter a side effect (depression) of reserpine — for which he shared the Nobel Prize for medicine in 2000.

The research on reserpine helped unlock the chemistry of the brain involving a class of chemicals called catecholamines and produced what Jain says is a fundamental tenet of modern biological psychiatry.

While scores of clinical trials of reserpine were conducted in Japan, Europe and the US during the 1950s, there was not a single research publication evaluating its use from India, Jain and Murthy have pointed out in their paper.

These studies on a compound from a plant, known in India for centuries but introduced to science by Bose and Sen, helped create a multi-billion dollar industry of anti-psychotic and anti-depressant drugs, they said.

Medical scientists believe lessons from this episode are relevant even today.

“There’s this ‘Berlin Wall’ between medicine and plant-based organic chemistry,” said Marthanda V.S. Valiathan, a cardiac surgeon and former president of the Indian National Science Academy. “Medical researchers tend not to look at plant-based chemicals. They think it is a hobby of chemists,” Valiathan said.

The type of inter-disciplinary research that may have been needed to advance reserpine chemistry within India in the 1950s is not abundantly visible even today.

“Medical students don’t know what a university education or research is like — and university researchers are isolated from medicine,” Jain said. “We’re likely to lose out on even fresh developments.”


Research Associate
Department of Clinical Neuroscience
Division of Neuroscience and Mental Health Faculty of Medicine
Salary Range: £26,580 - £30,360 per annum
All appointments will normally be made at the bottom of the salary range

A post-doctoral Research Associate position, funded by a MRC research grant awarded to Dr David Soto, is available in the Division of Neuroscience & Mental Health at Imperial College London.

A capable, creative and ambitious individual is sought to design and carry out innovative projects looking at how information processing can be influenced by manipulating the contents of working memory, both in healthy and brain-damaged populations [see Soto et al 2008, Automatic guidance of attention from working memory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12, 342-348] It is also expected that the post holder will assist with participant recruitment and project supervision of BSc and MSc students.

The candidate should have strong interests in human cognition (memory, attention and learning) as well as previous doctoral and/or post-doctoral experience in psychology and/or cognitive neuroscience. Applicants must have, or have nearly completed, a PhD and expertise in computer programming (i.e. E-Prime, Matlab), functional neuroimaging (i.e. FSL, SPM, TMS) is highly desirable.

This post, based at the Hammersmith Campus in East Acton, is fixed-term and is available for up to 35 months.

Informal enquiries can be made to Dr David Soto at d.soto@imperial.ac.uk

Our preferred method of application is online via our website at http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/employment (please select "Job Search" then enter the job title or vacancy reference number into -Keywords-). Please complete and upload an application form as directed quoting reference number HM2009076.

Alternatively, if you are unable to apply online, please email hmrecr@imperial.ac.uk to request an application form.

Sunday, July 19, 2009

Statistics on Vision Impairment: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

How many people worldwide have a vision impairment?
•The World Health Organization estimates 161 million people worldwide have a visual impairment. Of these, 37 million are blind and 124 million have low vision (World Health Organization, 2000).

How many people of all ages have a vision impairment?
•National estimates for the overall prevalence of vision impairment vary, depending upon the definition utilized.

•An estimated 7.9 million persons age 15 and older (3.5%) have difficulty seeing words and letters in ordinary newspaper print, even when wearing glasses or contact lenses (Steinmetz, 2006).

•Approximately 19 million persons age 18 and older (8.8%) report having any trouble seeing even when wearing glasses or contact lenses (Lethbridge-Cejku, Rose, and Vickerie, 2006).

How many middle aged and older adults report some form of vision problem?
•One in six Americans (17%), 45 years of age or older, representing 16.5 million middle-aged and older adults, report some form of vision impairment even when wearing glasses or contact lenses (The Lighthouse Inc., 1995).

•The prevalence of self-reported vision impairment increases with age. The following report some form of vision impairment:
15% (9.3 million) Americans ages 45-64 years; 17% (3.1 million) ages 65-74 years and 26% (4.3 million) age 75 years and older (The Lighthouse Inc., 1995).

•Among persons age 65 and older, 21% report some form of vision impairment (The Lighthouse Inc., 1995). Based on 2000 population estimates, this represents 7.3 million persons.

•The vast majority of middle-aged and older Americans who report vision impairment are partially sighted rather than totally blind. Only 2% of all Americans age 45 and older report that they are blind in both eyes (The Lighthouse Inc., 1995).

"What is the prevalence of vision impairment among persons age 18 - 45?"
•Nationally, 5.1% of persons age 18 to 44 (5.6 million) report having any trouble seeing even when wearing glasses or contact lenses (Lethbridge-Cejku, Rose, and Vickerie, 2006)

How many children in the U.S. have a vision impairment?
•Based on data from the 1996 National Health Interview Survey, less than 1% (0.6%) of persons under the age of 18 are visually impaired, defined as blindness in one or both eyes, or any other trouble seeing even when wearing glasses, representing 448,000 children and youths (Adams, Hendershot, & Marano, 1999).

•Based on data from the 2002 Survey of Income and Program Participation, 189,000 children 6-14 years of age (0.5%) have difficulty seeing words and letter in ordinary newspaper print even when wearing glasses or contact lenses (Steinmetz, 2006).

How many people in the U.S. have a severe vision impairment?
•An estimated 1.8 million persons age 15 and older (0.8%) have a severe vision impairment, defined as an inability to see words and letters in ordinary newspaper print even when wearing glasses or contact lenses (Steinmetz, 2006).)

•Based on data collected from The Lighthouse National Survey, 8.7 million (9%) Americans age 45 and older report a severe vision impairment, defined as an inability to recognize a friend at arm's length even when wearing glasses or contact lenses, or cannot read ordinary newspaper print even when wearing glasses or contact lenses, or report poor or very poor vision even when wearing glasses or contact lenses, or are blind in both eyes (The Lighthouse Inc., 1995).

How many people potentially have low vision?

•More than 3 million Americans have low vision (National Advisory Eye Council, 1998).

•It is also estimated that approximately 12 million people have some form of vision impairment that cannot be corrected by glasses (National Advisory Eye Council, 1998).

How many people in the U.S. are legally blind?
•Data collected from the National Health Interview Survey on Disability (1994-95) indicate that approximately 1.3 million persons reported legal blindness (0.5%) (American Foundation for the Blind, 2007).

How many people in the U.S. have light perception or less?
•An estimated 20% of legally blind individuals have clinically measured light perception or less, representing an estimated 260,000 individuals (American Foundation for the Blind, 2004).

What is the employment status of persons who have a visual impairment?
•Nationally, among persons age 21 to 64 who are visually impaired, defined as any difficulty or inability to see words and letters even when wearing glasses or contact lenses, 55.3% are employed; among individuals unable to see words and letters, this figure decreases to 48% (Steinmetz, 2006). This proportion is significantly lower than the approximately 88.2% of persons without any disability in this age group who are employed.

What are the leading causes of blindness in the U.S.?
•The leading causes of existing cases of blindness are: Glaucoma, Macular Degeneration, Cataracts, optic nerve atrophy, Diabetic Retinopathy and Retinitis Pigmentosa. These causes account for 51% of all cases of blindness (National Society to Prevent Blindness, 1980).

Employment Status and Earnings of Working Age Persons With Visual Impairments

Data on the employment status of persons with visual impairments presented in this document was obtained from two sources: the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), and the National Health Interview Survey on Disability (NHIS-D). Please note each source uses a different definition of vision impairment and includes different age categories of working age adults.

Data From the Survey of Income and Program Participation

•Nationally, among persons age 21 to 64 who have a visual impairment (defined as difficulty or inability to see words and letters in ordinary newspaper print even when wearing glasses or contact lenses), only 55.3% are employed; among individuals unable to see words and letters, this figure decreases to 48.0%. This proportion is significantly lower than the estimated 88.2% of persons in this age group without any kind of disability who were employed (Steinmetz, 2006).

•An examination of data collected from the Survey of Income and Program Participation 1991-1992, 1997, and 2006 indicates an increase in the proportion of persons with a severe vision impairment who are employed. During 1991-1992 only 26% of persons with a severe vision impairment were employed, compared to 30% in 1997 and 48% employed in 2002 (McNeil, 1993; McNeil 2001; Steinmetz, 2006).

•Results of the National Longitudinal Transition Study indicate that only 29% of youths with visual impairments (between the ages of 16 and 21 years) were competitively employed 3-5 years following secondary school. This figure can be compared to 57% of youths with disabilities overall and 69% of youth in general who are employed (Blackorby & Wagner, 1996).

Average Annual Earnings

•Average annual earnings of individuals with visual impairments are about 33% lower than those earned by persons without disabilities ($22,106 versus $32,870) (Steinmetz, 2006).

•Working-age adults with visual impairments also earn annual incomes that are about 4% lower than those earned by persons with any type of disability ($22,106 versus $23,034) (Steinmetz, 2006).

Data From the National Health Interview Survey on Disability

The following estimates were compiled by the American Foundation for the Blind (2004).

•According to data collected from the National Health Interview Survey on Disability, approximately 46% of people ages 18 to 69 years who have a vision impairment (serious difficulty seeing even with glasses or contact lenses) or are legally blind are employed.

•An estimated 32% of legally blind persons ages 18 to 69 years of age are employed.

•Not including persons who are legally blind, 46% of individuals ages 18 to 69 who have a visual impairment (serious difficulty seeing even with glasses or contact lenses) are employed.

Sunday, July 12, 2009

OSA Tillyer Award Nominations

Dear Colleagues,

The Edgar D. Tillyer Award, given every two years by the Optical
Society of America, is one of the few awards available for
recognizing career excellence in vision science. OSA is currently
requesting nominations (due date October 1, 2009). Nominations
should be sent to the Optical Society of America online at:

If you plan to make a nomination please let me know (susana@io.cfmac.csic.es) before you
begin in order to reduce the possibility of duplicate nominations.

Best wishes,

Susana Marcos

2010 Tillyer Award Committee:

Susana Marcos (Chair)
Albert J.Ahumada
Pablo Artal
John L. Barbur
Joseph Carroll
Frederick W. Fitzke

Susana Marcos, PhD
Profesora de Investigacion CSIC
Instituto de Optica, CSIC
Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid, Spain
Tel: +34915616800 x2313
Fax: +34 915645557
email: susana@io.cfmac.csic.es
NEW WEB SITE: http://www.vision.csic.es

Last mile CfP: PATTERNS 2009 || November 15-20, 2009 - Athens, Greece



Note that we are approaching the last stretch for submissions, the deadline being July 10, 2009.

Please consider to contribute to and/or forward to the appropriate groups the following opportunity to submit and publish original scientific results.


============== PATTERNS 2009 | Call for Papers ===============


PATTERNS 2009: The First International Conferences on Pervasive Patterns and Applications

November 15-20, 2009 - Athens, Greece

General page: http://www.iaria.org/conferences2009/PATTERNS09.html

Call for Papers: http://www.iaria.org/conferences2009/CfPPATTERNS09.html

Submission deadline: July 10, 2009

Sponsored by IARIA, www.iaria.org

Extended versions of selected papers will be published in IARIA Journals: http://www.iariajournals.org

Please note the Poster Forum and Work in Progress tracks.

The topics suggested by the conference can be discussed in term of concepts, state of the art, research, standards, implementations, running experiments, applications, and industrial case studies. Authors are invited to submit complete unpublished papers, which are not under review in any other conference or journal in the following, but not limited to, topic areas.

All tracks are open to both research and industry contributions, in terms of Regular papers, Posters, Work in progress, Technical/marketing/business presentations, Demos, Tutorials, and Panels.

Before submission, please check and conform with the Editorial rules: http://www.iaria.org/editorialrules.html

PATTERNS 2009 Tracks (tracks' topics and submission details: see CfP on the site)

- Basics on patterns

Design patterns; Pattern identification and extraction; Validate patterns; Patterns? accuracy; Incomplete patterns; Patterns and noise

- Patterns at work

Pattern logics and algebras; Pattern recognition; Pattern matching; Pattern languages; Patterns languages/models pitfalls; Pattern specification/modeling; Pattern validation; Pattern composition; Pattern reuse; Testing in pattern-based designed systems; Manageability and maintenance of pattern-based designed systems

- Ubiquity patterns

User mobility patterns; Social networking patterns; Content dependency patterns; Content accessing patterns; Behavioral autonomy patterns; Prediction patterns /behavioral, structure, environment/; Patterns of discovery

- Software patterns

Software design patterns; Software reuse patterns; Software quality patterns; Software testing patterns; Software performance, security, and safety patterns; Software management patterns

- Security patterns

Security patterns; Patterns of trust; Attack patterns; Authorization patterns; Failed access patterns; Intrusion attempt patterns

- System management patterns

Management and control patterns; Monitoring patterns; Correlation patterns; Event patterns; Visualization patterns

- Discovery and decision patterns

Search patterns; Data mining for patterns; Query patterns; Knowledge patterns; Behavioral patterns; Reasoning patterns; Decision patterns; Patterns in WWW

- Communications patterns

Communication patterns; Propagation patterns; Traffic/routing patterns; P2P and P4P patterns; Configuration change patterns; System abnormal behavior patterns

- Domain-oriented patterns

Forensic patterns; Genomic patterns; Image patterns; Voice patterns; Speech patterns; Hand writing patterns; Text-embedded sentiment patterns; Emotion recognition patterns; Site access patterns; Service orchestration; Keyboard typing patterns; Financial/stock patterns; Shopping patterns; Dietary patterns; Global warming patterns; Job market patterns; Stock movement patterns; Investing patterns

- Antipatterns and lessons learned

Architectural; Design; Development; People and project management; Social


IARIA Publicity Board

Committee members: http://www.iaria.org/conferences2009/ComPATTERNS09.html


Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness

New, reduced individual subscription rates for JVIB are now available!

The Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness (JVIB), a not for profit journal, and a leading journal in the area of blindness and low vision offers annual online subscriptions for $25 per year or $65 for one year of print issues of the journal and online access to more than 10 years of content.

For over 100 years, JVIB has been one of the most reliable sources for the latest in cutting-edge research, best practices, technology, and news in the visual impairment field.

Highlights for this year include:

* Jane Erin's new "Practice Perspectives" column.

* Louis Braille's 200th birthday celebration, with special guest editor Susan J. Spungin

and a yearlong collection of essays you won't want to miss.

* October's special issue on literacy.

* A completely redesigned, user-friendly online format.

* Comment-on this-article feature coming soon!

*Non-U.S. subscribers are charged an additional $36 for shipping and handling.*

Visit http://www.afb.org/jvibspecial.asp to subscribe.

Have questions? Contact us at afbpress@afb.net.

Applied Perception in Graphics and Visualization 2009: Tutorials Call for Proposals

sponsored by ACM Siggraph
September 30 - October 2 2009 Chania, Crete, Greece http://www.apgv.org

Call for Tutorial Proposals
*31th July 2009 Tutorial proposal due: June 30th
*7th August 2009 Notification of proposal acceptance
*31th August: Final version of Tutorial notes for inclusion in ACM
Digital Library due

The Symposium for Applied Perception in Graphics and Visualization
(APGV) unites researchers in the fields of perception, graphics, and
visualization. Since cross-disciplinary work can be greatly facilitated
by acquiring specific expertise and knowledge in the fields involved, we
are happy this year to welcome proposals for short, targeted tutorials
or panels.
The tutorial or panel can be at any level from beginner to advanced,
should be 1.5 hours long (each), and should address topics that advance
the goals of our community:

* Goal 1. Use insights from perception to advance the design of methods
for visual, auditory and haptic representation.
* Goal 2. Advance and facilitate novel basic perception and cognition
research that uses and is relevant to applications in computer graphics
and visualization.

Panels should consist of 3-5 speakers and should address research
challenges in the field. Short talks by panelists are encouraged
followed by discussion. Note that panels should encourage audience
interaction and debate.

Tutorials: Tutorials should be relatively broad and not focus on a
single line of research. Tutorials should cover reasonably well
established information.

Proposals should be at most 1 page long. Each proposal should include
the following:

* Title of the tutorial/panel
* Names of the organizers/presenters, and their affiliations
* Motivation, scope, and content of the tutorial/panel
* Expected level of tutorial/proposal or prerequisites for

Accepted tutorials and panels can be accompanied by a STAR report or a
collection of notes for inclusion in the conference proceedings DVD and
the ACM DL. Each accepted tutorial/panel will be awarded one free
conference registration.

Email submissions directly to the Tutorial Chair:

Program Chairs
Bobby Bodenheimer, Vanderbilt University
Carol O'Sullivan, Trinity College Dublin

Conference Chairs
Katerina Mania, Technical University of Crete
Bernhard E. Riecke, Simon Fraser University

Tutorials Chair
Douglas W. Cunningham, MPI for Biological Cybernetics

Object Recognition and Attention at Stanford University

Postdoctoral Position with Kalanit Grill-Spector and Tirin Moore at Stanford University

A postdoctoral position is available in the laboratories of Kalanit Grill-Spector, Department of Psychology and Tirin Moore, Department of Neurobiology, at Stanford University. We are seeking a candidate to spearhead a collaborative effort involving parallel fMRI studies in humans and behaving monkeys in an effort to understand the neural mechanisms of visual object recognition, neural adaptation and visual attention. Candidates with either neurophysiological or neuroimaging experience are encouraged to apply, but preferences will be given to the latter.

The position will be for 2 years, with the possibility of additional years. The preferred starting date is September 2009.

Send a CV, a one-paragraph statement of research interests, and the names and email contacts of 3 referees to:
Kalanit at psych.stanford.edu

Tirin Moore, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor
Department of Neurobiology
Stanford University
Stanford, CA 94305 USA
cell: 650.283.0188

Postdoc Position

A 2 year fully funded postdoctoral position is available in the Vision Research Lab of Prof Frank Werblin at UC Berkeley. Applicants should have a substantial background in retinal electrophysiology, vision science, visual processing in retina and/or higher centers. Projects include studies of retinal circuitry underlying visual function, retinal pharmacology, molecular tools for visual prosthetics including the use of artifical rhodopsins to restore vision in the blind. Please send resume to werblin@berkeley.edu, or call 510 642 7236

Postdoc Position

Postodoctoral position in retinal physiology and neuroscience

Postdoctoral positions are available in the laboratory of Dr. Christophe Ribelayga, Ph.D. in the Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston. Research in the lab is focused on circadian rhythms and neuronal plasticity and directed at elucidating the retinal cell types and mechanisms critical for circadian organization of retinal function (for instance, see Ribelayga et al., Neuron, 2008). These positions require a background in basic cell and molecular biology techniques (e.g. immunocytochemistry, in situ hybridization, confocal microscopy, organotypic culture, HPLC). In addition, experience in electrophysiology, in particular single-cell patch-clamp and intracellular recordings in whole-mount retinas, is desirable, although not strictly required but the candidates will be expected to learn those techniques. Candidates should have a Ph.D. in Neuroscience or relevant field, and have a working understanding of biological rhythms and/or retinal neurophysiology. A minimum commitment for 2-3 years is desired. Excellent training and interaction with other vision scientists within the department and on campus are available. To apply, please send a single pdf file that contains a curriculum vitae, a short statement of research interests and experience, and three names of references with contact information to: Christophe.P.Ribelayga@uth.tmc.eduChristophe.P.Ribelayga@uth.tmc.edu>. The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston is an Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Employer M/F/D/V.


Christophe P. Ribelayga, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor
The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
Medical School - Department
of Ophthalmology & Visual Science

Postal address: PO box 20708 - Houston, TX 77225-0708
Physical address: MSB 7.232A (office) and MSB 7.022 (lab) - 6431 Fannin, Houston, TX 77030

Phone: +1 (713) 500-5673 (office) and +1 (713) 500-5979 (lab)
Cell phone (emergency): +1 (614) 315-8494
Fax: +1 (713) 500-0682 or 500-0683
E-mail: Christophe.P.Ribelayga@uth.tmc.edu

Department office: MSB 7.024; phone: +1 (713) 500-6005

Postdoc position and Ph.D. studentship in Karl Gegenfurtner's lab

A Postdoctoral position and a Ph.D. studentship are available in the lab
of Karl Gegenfurtner at Giessen University (Germany). The positions are
for researchers interested in the perception of material properties.
Potential topics of research include color vision, visuo-haptic
interactions and the neural basis of material property perception (using

The positions start in October 2009, but later dates could be arranged.

For the PostDoc position, a doctoral degree in psychology, physics,
biology, or computer science is prerequisite. Experience in programming
visual displays or measuring eye movements are of advantage. Salary is
according to German research scale BAT IIa. The position is for 1 year
initially and renewable for up to 5 years.

For the Ph.D. studentship, a M.A. or M.Sc. degree is required. The
position is paid according to German research salary scale Bat IIa/2 and
is for three years.

Please send applications (please indicate which position you are
applying for) before August 7, 2009 per email to
gegenfurtner@uni-giessen.de as a single PDF file.

The lab offers excellent facilities for studying visual perception and
motor control. We are part of a larger research group on perception
and action (http://www.allpsych.uni-giessen.de/for560) with excellent
links to scientists within Europe and world wide. The group offers a
stimulating, multi-national and multi-disciplinary research
environment for young scientists (http://www.allpsych.uni-giessen.de).
The city of Giessen is a small university town, located just 60 km
north of Frankfurt, right at the center of Germany.

Do not hesitate to contact me for informal inquiries.

Karl Gegenfurtner
Prof. Karl Gegenfurtner, Abteilung Allgemeine Psychologie
Justus-Liebig-Universit=C3=A4t, Otto-Behaghel-Str. 10, 35394 Giessen
phone: +49 641 9926100=09 mailto:http://us.mc523.mail.yahoo.com/mc/compose?to=gegenfurtner@uni-giessen.de
fax: +49 641 9926119=09 http://www.allpsych.uni-giessen.de/karl

PhD in Visual Neurosciences

A graduate student position (PhD) is offered for the investigation of the visual function by optical brain imaging which allows one to visualize neural activity on-line and study the functioning of the brain in normal and physiopathological conditions. A scholarship will be provided for three years. The laboratory is located at the School of Optometry at the Université de Montreal. The vision research group of the School comprises researchers in complementary fields (e.g., psychophysics, brain imaging, neuroanatomy). Visit the lab web site at: http://www.opto.umontreal.ca/neurosciences/. The general aim of the project is to determine the impact of the extrageniculate thalamus on the visual cortex of tree shrews by optical brain imaging. Priority will be given to those with a good academic (and publication) track record and with a MSc (or equivalent) in visual neuroscience and/or imaging (engineering) or in related neuroscience areas. Skills in programming and image analysis will be a plus. Candidates should have a interest in visual neurosciences, be motivated, hard-working, autonomous, and be able to write articles in English. Please provide the following: (1) Letter of motivation; (2) CV including publication list; (3) Academic records and diplomas; (4) Two letters of recommendation from persons in authority (e.g., professors), including the MSc supervisor. These letters should be e-mailed directly by these persons. The candidate should e-mail the remaining parts of the application (1 to 3) to: christian.casanova@umontreal.ca.


Christian Casanova, PhD
Directeur adjoint à la recherche et aux études supérieures / Associate Director for Research and Graduate Studies

Laboratoire des Neurosciences de la vision / Visual Neuroscience Laboratory
École d'optométrie

Université de Montréal
CP 6128, Succ Centre-Ville
Montréal, Québec
Canada, H3C-3J7

Tel: (514)-343-2407
Fax: (514)-343-2382


Adresse civique / For express mail, use the following:
École d'optométrie

Université de Montréal
3744 Jean-Brillant, local 260-7
Montréal, Québec
Canada, H3T-1P1